Seventy-Third Ohio Infantry Volunteers 
Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies

O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME 16 [S# 16]
AUGUST 16-SEPTEMBER 2, 1862.--Campaign in Northern Virginia.
No. 10.--Reports of Col. Nathaniel C. McLean, Seventy-fifth Ohio Infantry, commanding Second Brigade, of the battles of Groveton and Bull Run.

                                                                                        HDQRS. SECOND BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION,
                                                                                        Camp at Centreville, September 1, 1862.


        I have the honor to report, so far as concerning the active participation of the Second Brigade in the battle of August 30, as follows:
        The brigade had been placed in position on the evening of August 29, with the left resting on the Warrenton road, and remained there until the afternoon of August 30, when by order I detailed the Fifty-fifth Ohio Regiment to occupy a position on the left of the Warrenton road, which was pointed out to Colonel Lee by an aide of General Sigel, the object of which was to keep up a connection with General Reynolds on my left. A short time after this General Sigel received an order in my presence from General Pope, delivered by Colonel Ruggles, to place a battery with a brigade on a bald hill to my left, so as to sustain General Reynolds, and I was immediately ordered by General Sigel to that position with a battery of four pieces of artillery and the Second Brigade. The order was executed by placing the battery with the three remaining regiments of the brigade (the Seventy-third Ohio, the Twenty-fifth Ohio, and the Seventy-fifth Ohio) in the position indicated, so as to sustain General Reynolds, who then with his right wing joined my left. Soon after I had taken this position, much to my surprise General Reynolds put his troops in motion and marched entirely past and across my front to the right, to what point I am not informed. Finding that this movement had entirely exposed my left flank I immediately changed the position of my troops, and deployed in line of battle the Seventy-third and Twenty-fifth Ohio Regiments, fronting the west and to the left of the battery, and the Seventy-fifth and Fifty-fifth Ohio, then returned from its former position on the right of the battery, thus making my line of battle fronting the west, with the battery in the center and two regiments on each side. I could by this time see the enemy advancing on my front and a little to the right, driving before them a regiment of Zouaves. They came on rapidly, when some troops advanced to meet them from behind a hill on my right. These troops were also driven back in confusion, and as soon as they got out of the way I opened upon the enemy with the four pieces of artillery, throwing first shell, and as they approached nearer, canister. I also commenced a heavy fire with infantry, and in a short time the enemy retreated in great confusion. During this time any attention had been called to a body of troops advancing toward my position in the rear of my left flank, and supposing them to be enemies, I gave the order to turn two pieces of artillery upon them, but countermanded it upon the assurance of some one who professed to know the fact that they were our own troops, and I readily believed this, as their clothing was dark, and then rested easy, thinking re-enforcements were coming to take position on my left and occupy the place vacated by General Reynolds. I then turned my exclusive attention to the enemy on my front. Soon after this a heavy force of the enemy, much superior to my own, marched out of the woods across the position formerly occupied by General Reynolds, in front of my left flank, and swept around, so as to come in heavy force both on the front and flank of my left wing. This force opened a heavy fire upon the Seventy-third Ohio, and the next moment the troops in my rear, supposed to be friends, also opened fire with musketry and artillery. Overpowered by such superiority in numbers, after a short time the Seventy-third and Twenty-fifth fell back over the crest of the hill, but were still exposed to the fire from both columns of the enemy. I immediately, when this attack was made, gave the order to change front, so as to repel it if possible, but the retreat of the battery at this moment interfered somewhat with the movement, as it passed through the Seventy-fifth in its retreat. The Fifty-fifth, on my right flank, at the command wheeled by battalion to the left and came up into line, fronting the enemy in fine order, and the other regiments speedily formed on his left, and delivered such a heavy and continuous fire that in a short time the enemy ceased to advance, and commenced to fall back. My men followed with cheers, driving the enemy back rapidly, and would have cleared them from the field but for the fact that the forces permitted to approach our rear had got into such a position as to rake us with grape, canister, and musketry, while we were attacked severely in front. Under all this, however, my brigade retained the hill until I myself gave the order to fall back slowly. This order was given with great reluctance, and only when my attention was called to a heavy force of the enemy approaching to attack us on our then right flank but former front. I saw that it would but destroy my whole command to await that attack, and therefore gave the order under which we left the hill.
        During the course of the action General Schenck with several regiments came to my aid, but not until I had changed front. He greatly aided me by his gallant conduct in rallying and cheering on the men until he received the wound which drove him from the field.
        The loss is smaller than I supposed under the circumstances it could possibly be, and I will make a full return upon this point when the particulars are fully ascertained. Both officers and men, with few exceptions, behaved with great gallantry, and had such support been given me as to protect my rear from the terrible attack made upon me from that quarter I could have continued to drive the enemy and successfully resisted his attack.
        It is impossible in this report to mention the names of all those who distinguished themselves for gallantry, but I cannot refrain from noticing, with great approbation, the great coolness and gallantry displayed by the commanders of the four regiments of the brigade (Colonel Smith, Seventy-third Ohio; Colonel Lee, Fifty-fifth Ohio; Colonel Richardson, Twenty-fifth Ohio, and Major Reily, Seventy-fifth Ohio) during the whole engagement. My own horse was killed under me during the hottest of the fire.

                                                                        N. C. McLEAN,
                                                                                Col., Comdg. 2d Brig., 1st Div., 1st Army Corps, Army of Va.

                                                                        Brigadier-General STAHEL,
                                                                                Comdg. First Division, First Corps, Army of Virginia.

O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME 16 [S# 16]
AUGUST 16-SEPTEMBER 2, 1862.--Campaign in Northern Virginia.
No.13.--Report of Col. Orland Smith, Seventy-third Ohio Infantry, of the battles of Groveton and Bull Run.

                                                                        HDQRS. SEVENTY-THIRD OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY,
                                                                        Langley, Va., September 5, 1862.


        I have the honor to report the part taken by the Seventy-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry in the engagements of Friday and Saturday, August 29 and 30, in the neighborhood of Bull Run.
        On the 29th, although not actively engaged with the enemy, the regiment was constantly on the field, and in several instances under severe artillery fire, resulting in the wounding of 7 persons in my command. The actual fighting service of the regiment during that day was confined to some slight skirmishing between Companies A and B and the enemy's sharpshooters. Nevertheless the frequent changes of position and preparations for action, continuing till a late hour at night, were fatiguing and harassing, taxing not only the patience and endurance of the men, but very frequently their courage. I am happy to report a commendable obedience and promptness on the part of my men of all grades during the entire day under all circumstances, whether of exposure without opportunity of replying or of labor under privations of food and drink without apparent results.
        On the 30th our position was as a reserve, in close column of companies, on the left of the brigade. We remained in this position till the middle of the afternoon, when, in obedience to your orders, the brigade was moved to the left, the Seventy-third being in front. I advanced to a considerable distance, in the expectation of forming a junction with the forces of General Reynolds, whom I was told we were to support. Not finding any co-operating forces at the point where I had been told they were in position, I formed forward into line as rapidly as possible, and advanced one company (A) to the front, deployed as skirmishers, to observe the movements of the enemy and report. The regiment was scarcely in line before reports came from Major Hurst, on the left, that a large force of the enemy could be distinctly seen advancing on our left flank and rear. Being under the impression that we must be sustained by other forces in that direction, I could not believe it possible that a hostile force could be approaching us from that quarter with impunity, an(l was not convinced that they were foes till I made a personal observation, resulting in the conviction that they were not only foes, but that they were in numbers sufficient to crush us at the first onset.
        I immediately dispatched Adjt. B. F. Stone to advise you of the danger and the necessity for prompt preparation to meet the emergency. On his return he reported that he had been unable to find you, but had communicated the facts to your aide, Lieutenant Morse.
        In the mean time Captain Buckwalter, of Company A, had reported several regiments of the enemy to be filing up a ravine and approaching us through the woods directly in front. I immediately ordered the skirmishers to be recalled, and prepared to receive the approaching masses with a well-directed fire, which was done to my satisfaction. The first volley drove the enemy back, and was very destructive, as I have since learned from some of my men who visited the field on Sunday, 31st.
        A devastating fire now opened from the lines of the enemy, who had already turned our flank. Our ranks were soon thinned by the overwhelming force to which we were opposed, and being too weak for further effectual resistance, no alternative was left but a retirement. This was accomplished with considerable loss under a severe crossfire from front, flank, and rear. In thus falling back the regiment became somewhat scattered, but the men rallied behind a fence in the edge of the wood to which we retired, and poured a well-directed fire upon the advancing foe, retiring again when too much exposed to another point in rear, where they were covered by re-enforcements, which had come forward; too late, however, to recover the field. Finding further effort with my thinned ranks useless, after having made several rallies, combining with my own forces many from other commands, whom I found isolated, I drew off to join you, which I succeeded in doing just before dark, on the ground occupied by the First Brigade of our division.
        All officers and men under my command on that day deserved and won my highest commendation for cheerful obedience and determined resistance under the most trying circumstances. Where all did well it would be useless to attempt personal distinctions. I cannot forbear mentioning, however, the able manner in which I was sustained by Major Hurst and Adjutant Stone. The former had his horse shot under him in the early part of the action, after which he rendered efficient service on foot in rallying and steadying the men.
        Company A, under command of Captain Buckwalter, and Company B, under Lieutenant Hinson, are entitled to favorable mention for the skill and promptness with which they responded to the calls for skirmishers on both days. It may not be improper to mention the name of Captain Madeira, of Company H, who at great personal risk brought off the national color when both color-bearers and the entire colorguard had fallen.
        I inclose herewith a list of killed, wounded, and missing. The number, compared with the whole strength of the regiment engaged, will show a very large proportion.
        The whole number taken into action was 312; number ascertained to be killed, 25; wounded and recovered, 56; wounded prisoners paroled, 31; prisoners not known to be wounded, 10. Total killed, wounded, prisoners, and missing, 148.
        Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                                                        ORLAND SMITH,
                                                                                                Colonel Seventy-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry.

                                                                                        Col. N. C. McLEAN,
                                                                                                Comdg. Second Brig., First Div., First A.C.

Correspondence, orders, and returns relating specially to operations in Northern Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland from March 17 to September 2, 1862.

                                                                                        HUTTONSVILLE, VA.,
                                                                                        March 23, 1862.
                                                                                        Brig. Gen. W. S. ROSECRANS:

        Have ordered one company of Tenth Virginia to take charge of Buckhannon; Hyman to report here, and Seventy-third Ohio also. If five or six companies of Fifty-fifth Ohio could take charge of Beverly, Philippi, and Huttonsville I could take, including three companies of cavalry, 4,000 men with me. Richmond's companies are very poorly armed. Could you not hasten their arms to Buckhannon? Could you inform me whether General Cox has moved on Lewisburg or what his intentions are? After taking Monterey and Alleghany I should be re-enforced to make sure of holding possession at Staunton, if thought best to move on there.

                                                                                        R.H. MILROY,

O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XXVII/1 [S# 43] -- Gettysburg Campaign
No. 251. -- Report of Col. Orland Smith,
Seventy-third Ohio Infantry, commanding Second Brigade.

                                                                            HDQRS. SECOND BRIG, SECOND DIV., ELEVENTH A C.,
                                                                            Near Catlett's Station, Va., August 5, 1863.


        I have the honor to report the operations of the Second Brigade, Second Division, Eleventh Corps, from June 12 to July 4, beginning with its departure from Brooke's Station and ending with the battle of Gettysburg.
        The brigade, consisting of the Seventy-third Ohio, Thirty-third Massachusetts, Fifty-fifth Ohio, and One hundred and thirty-sixth New York Volunteers, marched from its encampment at Brooke's Station on Friday, June 12, at 1 p.m. Its marches and halts until its arrival at Gettysburg were as follows:
        Friday, June 12.--Brooke's Station to Hartwood Church, 13 miles.
        Saturday, June 13.--From Hartwood Church to Weaverville, near Catlett's.
        Sunday, June 14.--Weaverville to Blackburn's Ford, 18 miles.
        Monday, June 15.--Blackburn's Ford to Centreville, 5 miles, where we tarried until Wednesday, June 17.
        Wednesday, June 17.--Centreville to Goose Creek, 18 miles, where the brigade took position on the north side of Goose Creek, picketing that side, and sending scouting parties and patrols to Leesburg, Hog Back Mountain, near Mount Gilead, and to Aldie. Remained on Goose Creek till Wednesday, June 24; marched from Goose Creek to Edwards Ferry, 7 miles.
        Thursday, June 25.--Edwards Ferry to Jefferson, 22 miles. Friday, June 26.--Jefferson to Middletown, 7 miles.
        Saturday, June 27.--Middletown to Boonsborough Gap, 6 miles. Sunday, June 28.--Boonsborough Gap to Frederick, 16 miles.
        Monday, June 29.--Frederick to Emmitsburg, 22 miles. Tarried here until Wednesday, July 1; Emmitsburg to Gettysburg, 9 miles.
        The men marched fully equipped, with haversacks, knapsacks, &c, carrying three days' rations and 60 rounds of ammunition. The previous comparative inactivity in camp caused some weariness during the first few days, and before half the distance was accomplished the shoes began to fail, thus leaving many men to march barefooted sometimes over very rough roads.
        The march from Boonsborough Gap to Emmitsburg is worthy of note. Starting at 4.40 p.m. on Sunday, 28th instant, we reached Frederick, 16 miles distant, about midnight, having been somewhat wearied, and impeded by the wagon trains which preceded us. Leaving Frederick at 4.30 a.m. on the 29th, we reached Emmitsburg at 5 p.m., having made 38 miles in twenty-four and one-half hours, with scarcely an instance of straggling. At times the roads were in bad order, being very heavy from the rains, rendering the marching very painful to those whose shoes had given out. Every labor and hardship was endured, however, with a cheerfulness which is worthy of commendation.
        On the march from Emmitsburg to Gettysburg, this brigade brought up the rear of the entire corps; consequently it was the last to arrive at the scene of action, which had been commenced earlier in the day by the First Corps.
        In compliance with orders from General Steinwehr commanding the division, I immediately formed the brigade in line of battle by battalions in mass in rear of Cemetery Hill, and thus advanced through the cemetery to the front of the hill overlooking the town. It was soon evident our forces, consisting of the First Corps and First and Third Divisions, Eleventh Corps, were retreating before vastly superior numbers from the opposite side of the town. The moment seemed critical, and, under the directions of the general, dispositions were rapidly made to repel any assault upon the hill should the enemy see fit to advance so far. The movements and deployments were made with considerable rapidity, and positions were frequently made by changes, as will be indicated by the reports of the regimental commanders, which are herewith submitted.
        The final disposition of the brigade was as follows: The base of the hill in front of the batteries of the corps was occupied by the Fifty-fifth and Seventy-third Ohio Volunteers and the One hundred and thirty-sixth New York Volunteers, the former being on the extreme right, and reaching to the southwest corner of the town, the Seventy-third in the center, and the One hundred and thirty-sixth on the left, connecting with the Second Corps. The Thirty-third Massachusetts was placed on the northeasterly side of Cemetery Hill, and, as I learned from the report of Colonel Underwood, was put temporarily under the command of General Ames, of the First Division, this, however, being the first intimation to me of such a fact.
        Our entire front was covered by a line of skirmishers thrown out toward the enemy's lines, the right resting near the town and the left connecting with a similar line of the Second Corps. These skirmishers were more or less engaged with those of the enemy during the whole period from the 1st to the night of July 3. This line was exposed not only to the fire of the enemy's front, but to a fire from the flanks and rear by the sharpshooters posted in the houses in the town. Indeed, the main line, though posted behind a stone wall, was constantly subjected to annoyances from the same source.
        During the various contests which marked the three days' battle, the regiments were constantly exposed, not only to the fire in front, but to the shot and shell coming from the batteries placed opposite the Twelfth Corps, on the right. Moreover, some casualties were occasioned by the premature explosion of some of the shells from our own batteries. Though the situation was at times of the most trying character, never a man faltered, to my knowledge, or complained, but every man seemed inspired by a determination to hold his position, dead or alive.
        On the night of the 2d, our line was threatened by a strong force of the enemy deployed in our front, while a vigorous attack was made upon the right wing of the corps. No attack was made on us, however, owing, as I have since been informed, to their failure to carry the hill on the right.
        On Friday, the 3d, when the final terrific assault was made by the enemy, the direction of their march at first seemed to indicate that our brigade would be strongly attacked. A change of direction to the right, however, threw the whole force of the attack upon the Second Corps, our skirmishers being only partially engaged. Nevertheless, the firmness manifested, not only by the old troops, but by those who had never before been actively engaged, was remarkable.
        With the reports of the respective regimental commanders will be found detailed lists of killed, wounded, &c., which foot up as follows:

O Officers.        M Men.         A Aggregate

                                    --Killed--            Wounded-            Missing.             Total.----

Command.                     O     M             O     M                 O     M             O     M     A

73d Ohio ....                   32      3            101 ....                    7      3              140   143

55th Ohio ....                    6      1             30     1                 11      2               47       49

136th New York ....        17 ....                88    1                   2      1             107     108

33d Massachusetts. ....   7 ....                 38 ....                     ....     ....            45      45

Total(*) ....                      62     4             257    2                  20     6             339     345

        For specific accounts of the operations of each regiment, I respectfully refer to the accompanying reports.
        Where all vied with each other in the performance of their respective duties, it is impossible to single out officers for special mention. I desire, however, to express my entire satisfaction at the conduct of the regimental commanders--Lieut. Col. R. Long, of the Seventy-third Ohio Volunteers; Col. C. B. Gambee, of the Fifty-fifth Ohio Volunteers; Col. A. B. Underwood, of the Thirty-third Massachusetts Volunteers, and Col. James Wood, jr., of the One hundred and thirty-sixth New York Volunteers--all of whom, by their vigilance and watchfulness, contributed to lighten my own cares and responsibilities.
        I cannot forbear mentioning with commendation the members of my staff--Capt. Benjamin F. Stone, jr., acting assistant adjutant-general; Capt. J. D. Maderia, acting assistant inspector-general; Capt. E. H. Pratt, and Lieut. H. E. Van Zandt, acting aides-de-camp, whose constant attention and ready response to all-calls in seasons of the greatest danger entitle them to the greatest praise.
        In closing, I venture to express the opinion that the arrival of this brigade upon Cemetery Hill at a critical moment, in good order and with full ranks, contributed much toward checking the enemy's advancing forces, and resulted in holding the hill, which, in my own opinion, was of the most vital importance, as was demonstrated by the subsequent actions.
        Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                                                        ORLAND SMITH,
                                                                                                Colonel, Commanding Second Brigade.

                                                                                        Lieut. R. E. BEECHER,
                                                                                                Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

Correspondence, Orders, And Returns Relating To Operations In North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, And Department Of The East, From June 3 To August 3, 1863.

                                                                                        SIGNAL STATION,
                                                                                        South Mountain, June 27, 1863--2 p.m.
                                                                                        Brig. Gen. A. VON STEINWEHR,
                                                                                        Commanding Second Division, Eleventh Corps:


        I have the honor to report that I can see no camps in or around Hagerstown or in any other direction. There is a dense smoke rising from a point above Williamsport, across the Potomac.
        I can see no infantry marching in any direction. Saw a body of cavalry, probably 25 in number, in a field beyond Sharpsburg, apparently reconnoitering; they are not now in sight. Also a body somewhat larger moving out of Hagerstown by a road leading northward. There is what appears to be a small picket of 25 or 30 men in a field this side of Hagerstown, along the road leading from that place to Boonsborough, but of this I am not positive--cannot make it out clearly. Can clearly distinguish the roads leading from Boonsborough to Hagerstown, Sharpsburg, and Shepherdstown, and can see no troops moving upon them, excepting the Union cavalry now at hand. The Union cavalry are on the road to Hagerstown.
        Boonsborough, Hagerstown, Sharpsburg, Shepherdstown, Keedysville, and Funkstown can plainly be seen from this place. There is smoke rising just now beyond Hagerstown, as of a house burning.
        I have the honor to remain, your obedient servant,

                                                                                        L. M. BUCHWALTER,
                                                                                                Captain Seventy-third Ohio Volunteers.

Correspondence, Orders, And Returns Relating Specially To Operations In North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, And Pennsylvania, From August 4 To December 31, 1863.

                                                                                        HEADQUARTERS ELEVENTH CORPS,
                                                                                        September 20, 1863.
                                                                                        Major-General HUMPHREYS,
                                                                                        Chief of Staff, Army of the Potomac:

        Captain Higgins, Seventy-third Ohio Volunteers, with a patrol, took 2 rebel prisoners near Brentsville. I send them to General Patrick this a.m.

                                                                                        O. O. HOWARD,


                                                        HDQRS. SECOND BRIG., SECOND DIV., 11TH ARMY CORPS,
                                                        Stevenson, Ala., October 11, 1863.
                                                        Col. T. A. MEYSENBURG,
                                                        Assistant Adjutant-General, Bridgeport, Ala.:

        The present disposition of railroad guards is as follows: Three companies at Tantalon, under Major Arnold, of One hundred and thirty-sixth New York Volunteers; four companies at Anderson, under Colonel Wood, who has also two companies between Anderson and Stevenson; one company each from the Fifty-fifth and Seventy-third Ohio, and one from the Thirty-third Massachusetts Volunteers are posted west of this point; one company of Thirty-third Massachusetts is posted at Widow's Creek, making thirteen companies on the line.
        I suggest the propriety of permitting Colonel Wood to take his remaining company to Anderson, whence he can communicate easily by telegraph. He is instructed to make the same dispositions for the present as have heretofore existed. He will be duly notified of the dividing line, as advised in your written order of this date. Will report further by letter.
        Very respectfully,

                                                                                        ORLAND SMITH,
                                                                                                Colonel, Commanding Second Brigade.


                                                                HDQRS. SECOND BRIG., SECOND DIV., ELEVENTH CORPS,
                                                                Stevenson, Ala., October 17, 1863.
                                                                Lieut. Col. C. GODDARD,
                                                                Assistant Adjutant-General:


        In compliance with General Orders, No. 53, Department of the Cumberland, current series, I have the honor to report the disposition of my command for the protection of the railroad from Widow's Creek, between Bridgeport and Stevenson, to the tunnel between Tantalon and Cowan Station.
        The brigade consists of the Fifty-fifth and Seventy-third Ohio Regiments, the Thirty-third Massachusetts, and One hundred and thirty-sixth New York.
        For convenience' sake, I propose to number the posts from east to west, beginning at Widow's Creek,
        No. 1, where is posted one company under command of Lieut. Caleb Blood, Thirty-third Massachusetts.
        No. 2 (bridge next west of Stevenson): One company, under command of Lieut. A. S. Wormley, Fifty-fifth Ohio.
        No. 3 (bridge): One company, under command of Capt. L. M. Buchwalter, Seventy-third Ohio.
        No. 4 (bridge): One company, under command of Capt. James Farson, Thirty-third Massachusetts.
        No. 5 (bridge): One company under command of Lieut. John Kinney, Seventy-third Ohio.
        No. 6 (trestle): One small company, under command of Lieutenant Bromley, Fifty-fifth Ohio.
        No. 7 (bridge next east of Anderson): One company, under command of Lieutenant Bailey, One hundred and thirty-sixth New York.
        No. 8 (Anderson Station), where Col. James Wood, commanding One hundred and thirty-sixth New York, has his headquarters, and three companies of his regiment.
        No. 9 (bridge next west of Stevenson): One company, under command of Captain Chapin, One hundred and thirty-sixth New York.
        No. 10 (bridge): One company, under command of Captain Cole, One hundred and thirty-sixth New York.
        No. 11 (bridge): One company, under command of Captain Cameron, One hundred and thirty-sixth New York.
        No. 12. (Tantalon Station and trestle, thence west to tunnel): Three companies of One hundred and thirty-sixth New York, under command of Major Arnold, same regiment.
        This arrangement was partially instituted on the 11th instant, and fully consummated on the 14th, since which no event worthy of note has transpired. The remainder of the brigade is encamped at this station near the fort.
        The recent rise in the creek (Crow Creek) rendered it necessary to remove some of the companies from the stockades, but not so far as to interfere with the performance of their duties.
        I have directed Colonel Wood to report from Anderson daily through me. If necessary to have daily reports from the commander at each bridge, please advise me.
        Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                                       ORLAND SMITH,
                                                                              Colonel Seventy-third Ohio Regt., Comdg. Second Brigade.

OCTOBER 26-29, 1863.--Reopening of the Tennessee River ...
No. 15. --Report of Brig. Gen. Adolph von Steinwehr, U.S. Army, commanding Second Division.

                                                                                        CHURCH OF JOHN THE BAPTIST,
                                                                                        October 30, 1863.


        On the 27th instant, this division broke camp and left Bridgeport at 6 a.m., the First Brigade leading. At about 5 p.m. we arrived at Whiteside's and camped for the night. On the 28th, we marched at daybreak toward Brown's Ferry in the same order. At the Trenton road the first indications of the enemy were seen. At about 2 p.m. the advance guard of the First Brigade was fired upon. The Seventy-third Pennsylvania was deployed as skirmishers and advanced. The Second Brigade advanced, the Seventy-third Ohio in a deployed line to the right of the Seventy-third Pennsylvania, and the Thirty-third Massachusetts followed as a reserve, together with the artillery. When the advanced regiments reached the foot of the hill a skirmish ensued. After firing a few rounds, we charged upon the enemy, who fell back across the Lookout Creek. The command was then assembled upon the Chattanooga road and moved forward. Late in the afternoon we went into camp in Lookout Valley, about 4 miles from Chattanooga.
        At about 12 midnight a firing was heard in our front and shortly afterward I received orders to advance with my division. I advanced with the Second Brigade, the First following. When we had advanced about one-quarter of a mile beyond the junction of the roads, I was ordered to take and hold a hill upon our left flank, which was occupied by the enemy. I ordered Col. O. Smith to advance upon the hill with the Seventy-third Ohio and Thirty-third Massachusetts in line of battle, and directed the One hundred and Thirty-sixth New York to ascend the hill on the left of the other two regiments. The troops were ordered not to fire, but to use the bayonet. They made a gallant charge and took the crest. The enemy fled, leaving some arms and intrenching tools in their rifle-pits. The tools were immediately made use of to strengthen their position by the men. We captured about 50 prisoners. The hill was occupied by Law's brigade, of Jenkins' division, Longstreet's corps, numbering five regiments, about 2,000 men. Our attacking force was not quite 700 muskets. The First Brigade was held as reserve immediately behind the Second Brigade, and advanced into the gaps right and left of the hill, to prevent a flanking movement of the enemy.

                                                                                        A. VON STEINWEHR,
                                                                                                Brigadier-General, Commanding Second Division.

                                                                                        Lieutenant-Colonel MEYSENBURG,
                                                                                                Assistant Adjutant-General.

OCTOBER 26-29, 1863.--Reopening of the Tennessee River ...
No. 18. --Report of Lieut. Col. Godfrey Rider, jr., Thirty-third Massachusetts Infantry.

                                                                            HDQRS. THIRTY-THIRD REGT. MASS. VOLUNTEERS,
                                                                            Near Lookout Mountain, Tenn., November 1, 1863.


        I have the honor to submit the following report of the share taken by the Thirty-third Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers in the operations of the 28th and 29th ultimo:
        On the afternoon of the 28th, this command was formed in line of battle behind the Seventy-third Ohio Volunteers, and advanced steadily, skirmishing through the woods and brush on the right of the railroad. Upon reaching an open space, where the line was ordered to halt, a brisk fire of solid shot and shell was opened upon it from a battery of heavy guns upon the top of Lookout Mountain. The men were ordered to lie down, and remained in this position about half an hour, when this command was ordered to follow the Seventy-third Ohio Volunteers which marched by the right flank back through the woods, recrossed the railroad, and took the main road on the other side. This movement was executed in good order and without hurry, the men marching steadily, regardless of the shot and shell which the enemy continued to shower upon the column, until it was beyond the reach of his guns. About sundown the regiment encamped with the brigade within our own lines. Our loss in this action was 1 man killed.
        At half past 12 o'clock on the morning of the 29th, orders were received to march. This command immediately fell into line, and after a march of a little over a mile reached a steep hill covered with trees and underbrush, upon the crest of which the enemy were posted, behind breastworks and rifle-pits, with skirmishers thrown out in front. This regiment formed in line of battle upon the hill-side, its right resting upon the road, and with one company (H) deployed as skirmishers on the left, reaching almost to the crest of the hill, and was ordered to advance in line and connect with the Seventy-third Ohio in front.
        The line advanced in good order, under fire of the enemy's skirmishers, until it reached a crooked ravine some 20 feet deep running parallel with the hill-side, the sides of which were almost perpendicular, slippery with leaves and clay, and covered with brush, and its appearance rendered still more formidable by the deceptive moonlight. At this point it was impossible to preserve a perfect line, but the regiment gallantly plunged into it--the dead and living rolling down together-- climbed the opposite side, and halted in some disorder. Here the enemy opened a deadly fire from the whole length of their line upon our front flank and rear. Colonel Underwood fell dangerously wounded, and many other officers and file closers were either killed or wounded. Unfortunately, the exact position of the enemy was unknown, and the Seventy-third Ohio, with which we were ordered to connect, could not be found for that purpose, they having advanced farther on our right, while we supposed them to be in a position actually occupied by the enemy. In this emergency, the regiment believing itself without support, and fired into by its friends, some confusion naturally ensued, and the line fell back slowly into the road. Here it was quickly reformed and again advanced in line, with fixed bayonets and without firing, directly up the face of the hill until, within a few yards of the breastworks, it drew the enemy's fire, when, with a cheer, it turned by the right flank, gained the crest, crossed the rifle-pits, and charged upon the enemy's flank with the bayonet, at the same time pouring a volley into his retreating ranks. The enemy, without waiting to reply, retreated precipitately over the hill, abandoning his killed and wounded, and leaving us in full possession of the hill. Here the regiment formed in line of battle, posted pickets, and commenced throwing up breastworks in case of an attack.
        This command captured 2 commissioned officers (1 wounded) and 39 privates, together with a large number of muskets and all the enemy's intrenching tools. Three companies of this command were absent, having been sent on an expedition toward Kelley's Ford. The regiment, therefore, went into action with only seven companies, numbering about 230 men. Out of this small force the command lost: Killed, 3 commissioned officers and 22 enlisted men; wounded, 5 commissioned officers and 56 enlisted men; total, 8 commissioned officers and 78 enlisted men, one-third of the whole number engaged.
        I have the honor to be, colonel, your obedient servant,

                                                                        G. RIDER, JR.,
                                                                              Lieutenant-Colonel, Comdg. Thirty-third Massachusetts Vols.

                                                                        Col. ORLAND SMITH,
                                                                               Comdg. Second Brig., Second Div., Eleventh Corps.

OCTOBER 26-29, 1863.--Reopening of the Tennessee River ...
No. 20. --Report of Maj. Samuel H. Hurst, Seventy-third Ohio Infantry.

                                                                            HDQRS. SEVENTY-THIRD REGT. OHIO VOLUNTEERS,
                                                                            Near Chattanooga, November 2, 1863.


        I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by this regiment in the actions of October 28 and 29 near Lookout Creek:
        In the afternoon of October 28, shortly after leaving Wauhatchie, in our line of march toward Chattanooga, I was ordered to cross the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad and move the regiment forward in line of battle, with its left touching the road, and ascertain whether the enemy were in force in the dense woods in that direction. Having made the dispositions indicated, and massed our front and right flank with skirmishers, we moved forward until our line had passed that of the First Brigade, Colonel Buschbeck, with whom I was ordered to connect. Here I halted the battalion while the skirmishers went forward to the banks of Lookout Creek, where they communicated with the skirmishers of the First Brigade, and assured themselves that the enemy was not in force in that immediate vicinity, yet a running fire of skirmishers and an attempt to burn the railroad bridge across the creek evidenced the intention of the enemy to dispute our advance in that direction.
        In the meantime, the enemy's batteries on the mountain were vigorously engaged in shelling our position, which, however, resulted to us in no casualties, save the slight wounding of 1 man. After remaining in this position about half an hour, I was ordered to withdraw the regiment and rejoin the brigade, which order I at once obeyed. On the morning of the 29th, while the Second Brigade, with the Seventy-third Ohio in the advance, was moving to the support of General Geary, at about 2 o'clock in the morning, I was ordered to form line of battle on the left of the road and sweep through the woods on the west side of a range of hills that ran parallel with the road on which we had been advancing. I immediately sent forward Captain Buchwalter, with instructions to deploy his company (A) as skirmishers and move in the direction indicated for the battalion. We then moved forward in line as rapidly as possible, considering the irregularities of the ground, the dense growth of underbrush, and the fallen timber. We had advanced, however, only a few hundred yards when the enemy's skirmishers opened fire upon us from the hill-tops on our left and from our front. I was ordered to wheel the battalion to the left and charge the hill, and was informed that the Thirty-third Massachusetts would connect with me on the left and move up the hill in the same line of battle. I instructed Captain Buchwalter to move his skirmishers by the left into our new front and advance in that direction, in executing which order his line received a heavy volley from an unseen force of the enemy on our right, and the gallant captain fell mortally wounded.
        We moved up the hill (steep and difficult though it was) for a hundred paces, receiving an irregular fire from the enemy in our front. Then we lay down and rested for a minute. The enemy's fire now indicated their position and the direction of their line of battle. We had yet another hundred paces to climb before we could use our bayonets, and we rose up and moved forward again to the charge, cheering as we went, and driving in the enemy's skirmishers. The heavily increasing fire of the enemy provoked an occasional shot from our own lines in answer. Our skirmishers had been constantly engaged, and now their line opened right and left, and we were confronted by the enemy's whole line of battle, sheltered behind formidable breastworks on the crest of the hill. As we came in sight of them in the clear moonlight they lowered their guns and poured into our ranks a most deadly fire. Our boys began to fall rapid]y, but the ranks were instantly closed, and steadily, in the face of death, our little battalion kept shouting and charging forward. The firing in our front became so rapid and effective that I commanded the regiment to answer it, which they did handsomely, still, however, continuing to advance.
        When we had approached within 2 or 3 rods of the enemy's breast-works there opened upon us a most murderous fire from a force on our right flank, completely enfilading our line. The appearance of this force on our flank seemed to forbid our farther advance. I knew we had no support on our right, and we had not held communication with the Thirty-third Massachusetts at any time during the engagement. Regarding the Seventy-third as the directing battalion, I had paid no attention to our support on the left, and it was impossible for me to learn whether Colonel Underwood was advancing or not, while heavy and irregular firing, with cries of "Don't fire upon your own men," coming from the left of our front, only increased the confusion. Under the circumstances I deemed it rash to advance farther until I knew that one, at least, of my flanks was protected. I ordered the regiment to retire a few rods, which they did in perfect order, and lay down again, while I sent Captain Higgins to ascertain the position and movements of the Thirty-third Massachusetts. Learning that, though they had fallen back, they were again advancing, I was preparing to go forward also, when information came that the Thirty-third had turned the enemy's flank, was gallantly charging him in his breastworks, and driving him from the left crest of the hill.
        I immediately charged forward again, took and occupied the works and hill in our own front, from which the enemy rapidly fled. The taking of this hill had not been accomplished, however, without fearful cost. One-half of my line officers and one-third of my men were either killed or wounded in this brief but desperate struggle, and never had men shown higher courage than characterized the work of that morning. A full report of the casualties has already been forwarded. I cannot, however, neglect to mention specially the lamented Captain Buchwalter (wounded, and since dead), whose chivalrous spirit and high, manly, and soldierly qualities won all hearts, and gave promise of a brilliant and useful career.
        Captain Barnes, Lieutenants McCommon, Hawkins, Talbott, and Martin were among the wounded, and deserve honorable mention. They behaved most gallantly in the fight, and their scars will be re-membrancers of duty bravely done. But where all acted so nobly it were invidious not to award them a just meed of praise. Those who survived unscathed were no less courageous than their fallen comrades. Captain Higgins, acting major, behaved with his accustomed intrepidity, being always in the thickest of the fight, cheering the men forward. Lieutenants Hinson, Kinney, Downing, Stone, Peters, and Davis, all commanding companies, were constantly with their men, inspiring them with a sublime courage, and leading them with soldiery determination against that wall of fire. Lieutenant Hosler, acting adjutant, assisted me efficiently, and the non-commissioned officers and the men in the ranks did all that I could ask. With daring, dauntless spirits, they attacked an enemy vastly superior in numbers and holding a fortified and almost impregnable position, and drove them from that position by the most heroic and desperate effort. It was an achievement worthy the best men of a veteran army, and must add new luster to our already honorable names, and make it a consideration of just and honest pride to belong to the brave old Seventy-third.
        I have the honor, captain, to subscribe myself, your obedient servant,

                                                                                        SAM'L H. HURST,
                                                                                                Major, Commanding Regiment.

                                                                                        Capt. B. F. STONE,
                                                                                                Acting Assistant Adjutant-General

NOVEMBER 23-27, 1863.--The Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign.
No. 101.--Report of Col. Orland Smith, Seventy-third Ohio Infantry, commanding Second Brigade, including march to the relief of Knoxville.

                                                                                HDQRS. SECOND BRIG., SECOND DIV., 11TH CORPS,
                                                                                Lookout Valley, Tenn., December 22, 1863.


        I have the honor to report the operations of the Second Brigade, Second Division, from November 22 to December 17 instant.
        Pursuant to orders, the brigade marched from its position in Lookout Valley at I p.m., on 22d November. The only transportation taken was one wagon containing intrenching tools and the ambulance assigned to brigade headquarters. The men carried their knapsacks, blankets, shelter tents, three days' rations, and 60 rounds of ammunition. The line of march was in the direction of Chattanooga, via Brown's Ferry. The strength of the column was as follows: Officers, 63; enlisted men, 1,086; total, 1,149.
        The following regiments composed the brigade: Seventy-third Ohio Volunteers, Fifty-fifth Ohio, Thirty-third Massachusetts, and One hundred and thirty-sixth New York Volunteers. The passage of two pontoon bridges being necessarily attended with some delay, the position assigned for encampment, in front of Chattanooga, to the right of Fort Wood, was not reached till near night.
        On Monday, November 23, I was directed to hold my brigade in readiness to move at 1 p.m., at which time it was formed in column of battalion en masse, and took position on the right of the Third Division, similarly formed, the First Brigade, Second Division, being in our rear. In this position the whole corps remained in reserve, while a division of the Fourth Corps made a demonstration toward Mission Ridge. After this division had established its position upon Orchard Knob we were ordered to move in conjunction with the rest of the corps to the left, and to advance to Citico Creek. After marching some distance to the left of Fort Wood the brigade was formed in two lines, the first line being composed of the One hundred and thirty-sixth New York and the Fifty-fifth Ohio Volunteers, deployed: the second, consisting of the Seventy-third Ohio and Thirty-third Massachusetts Volunteers, in column of division en masse. The front line having been covered by skirmishers, the brigade was ordered forward, connecting on its left with the First Brigade and on its right expecting to connect with the Third Division. The advance regiments soon came up with a regiment of Beatty's brigade, Fourth Corps, then on picket. Passing and relieving the skirmishers of this regiment, our skirmishers were soon briskly engaged with those of the enemy. They pressed on rapidly, however, returning but few shots, the enemy fleeing as they advanced. As the enemy's fire increased in intensity both skirmishers and the main line seemed disposed to rush forward with impetuosity, all moving at double-quick but in perfect order. After crossing the Chattanooga and Atlanta railroad, finding my brigade opening large intervals between itself and its connections on the right and left, and Citico Creek having been given as the limit of our advance, I deemed it prudent to order a halt. Our skirmishers had forced those of the enemy from a brick house in our front, from which they had kept up a brisk fire; but the advance had not been quite far enough to dislodge them from some rifle-pits which they occupied, and from which their sharpshooters continued to annoy us. Reconnoitering our position I found that Citico Creek ran at right angles to the railroad, along which our line was partly formed, and that it ceased to be a creek of any importance after passing the railroad in the direction of Mission Ridge. The enemy occupied a line of rifle-pits running from the direction of the mouth of the creek across the railroad, thence sweeping around our front toward our extreme right. While this brought those on the opposite bank of the creek directly in opposition to the regiments of the First Brigade, it afforded them an opportunity to annoy our left flank and rear. At nightfall, I therefore changed the direction of the left wing of the Fifty-fifth Ohio to correspond, and advanced a part of the Thirty-third Massachusetts to establish complete connection with the First Brigade. Meantime the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin, of the Third Division, had been brought forward to connect with the One hundred and thirty-sixth New York on our right. On this line intrenchments were formed and the position held without material change all the next day (November 24).
        On the afternoon of the 24th, in compliance with orders, the Seventy-third Ohio was thrown across Citico Creek, where it is crossed by the Chattanooga and Cleveland railroad, with instructions to drive the enemy from their rifle-pits in front of the First Brigade, the fire from which had been very annoying. The work assigned this regiment was performed promptly and successfully, resulting in the capture of some 30 prisoners.
        On the morning of the 25th of November, it being evident that the enemy's sharpshooters were still in a position to annoy some portions of our line, the Seventy-third Ohio and the One hundred and thirty-fourth New York (the latter of the First Brigade), were ordered forward to the line of the Chattanooga and Atlanta railroad. The advance met with some opposition, but was successfully accomplished and a new line established, the left resting near the intersection of the Chattanooga and Atlanta with the Chattanooga and Cleveland railroad, and running nearly parallel with Mission Ridge. Shortly after this the brigade moved with the rest of the corps to the northerly end of Mission Ridge, to co-operate with the forces under General Sherman. Its new position was on the left bank of Chickamauga River, some 4 or 5 miles from its mouth. Here it remained without engagement until next morning, November 26, when the corps marched in connection with Davis division, of the Fourteenth Corps, to Chickamauga Station, via the mouth of the river, camping near Graysville.
        On Friday, November 27, the command marched at daylight, passing through Graysville and thence to Parker's Gap. Here the brigade was sent in conjunction with the Third Brigade, Third Division, Col. F. Hecker commanding the latter, to Red Clay, a station on the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad, between Dalton, Ga., and Cleveland, Tenn., with instructions to destroy such a portion of that road as to render communication by rail between Dalton and points north impracticable for some time to come. This expedition, which was placed under the command of the undersigned, marched soon after noon, being accompanied by one section of Dilger's battery and some scouts from headquarters Eleventh Corps. Red Clay was reached without opposition or incident worthy of note, except the capture of Lieutenant Mason and 2 men of the rebel cavalry, who represented themselves as belonging to General Kelly's command, then near Cleveland. The lieutenant represented himself as a member of General Kelly's staff, and stated that his business was to communicate with General Bragg, all efforts in that direction having been thwarted by the intervention of our forces. He had been accompanied by a Captain Lourey[?], who succeeded in escaping without capture. No dispatches were found on the parties and they were turned over to the provost-marshal, and by him forwarded through the regular channels. No bridges of importance being discovered, our work on the railroad was chiefly limited to the destruction of the track. To effect this as rapidly and thoroughly as possible, the two brigades were deployed with large intervals between regiments, and the work of tearing up the track immediately commenced. While part of the men tore up the rails, others piled cross-ties in square tiers, on which the rails were laid, so as to have a center bearing. Fire being communicated, it was found that the rails bent readily, even before the pile was consumed, thus rendering the destruction complete and final In this manner nearly 2 miles were destroyed. In addition to this a large water station, the station house, and two box cars were consumed by fire. Having rendered the railroad useless and incapable of repair for some time to come, the expedition returned to Parker's Gap without molestation, arriving shortly after midnight.
        Saturday, November 28, was spent without change other than a movement to a new camping ground about 1 mile nearer to Graysville.
        Sunday, November 29, the brigade set out, in connection with the other troops of the corps, on the march toward Knoxville. Cleveland, Tenn., was the halting place for the night. The night was very cold and the men without blankets or shelter tents. With plenty of fuel and some straw, they were, however, able to render themselves comparatively comfortable.
        Monday, November 30, the march was resumed, this brigade leading, the Fifty-fifth Ohio being the extreme advance. The enemy's scouts having now shown themselves, and it having been reported that Charleston was occupied by some considerable force, it was deemed prudent to advance with some caution. In addition to the customary advance guard, skirmishers were thrown out right and left. In this manner the town was entered before noon, the men moving at double-quick; but though we passed their picket fires still burning, on our way into town, it was found that they had all retired across the Hiwassee, destroying as they left a rude pontoon bridge and two short spans of the railroad bridge. By direction of General Howard, I immediately threw two companies of the Fifty-fifth Ohio across the river in such rough boats as could be collected, the object being to secure some cars which were on the track near the village of Calhoun. The cars. 5 in number, loaded with flour, meal, salt, ammunition, bridge tools, &c., were secured, and afforded a timely issue of rations to at least two brigades of the corps. During the afternoon the remainder of the Fifty-fifth Ohio and the whole of the Thirty-third Massachusetts were crossed in boats. Meanwhile, repairs were progressing on the railroad bridge, which was ready by midnight for the passage of troops, wagons,. and artillery. The other two regiments remained in Charleston till a.m. on Tuesday, December 1, when the crossing commenced; thence the march continued, without noteworthy event to this brigade, as follows:
        December 1, to Athens, Tenn.
        Wednesday, December 2, through Philadelphia near to Loudon.
        Thursday, December 3, to and through Loudon to a point about 1 mile easterly on the Tennessee River.
        Friday, December 4, remained in camp at Loudon.
        Saturday, December 5, marched at 1 a.m. to Davis' Ford, on the Little Tennessee, where we crossed the river on a bridge of wagons and proceeded to Louisville, Tenn., some 14 miles south of Knoxville. Remained here until Monday, December 7, when, the object of the movement having been accomplished, the return march was commenced and continued with a tarry of three nights and two days at Athens, and a similar tarry at Cleveland until Thursday, December 17, 1863, when the command returned to its old camp in Lookout Valley, passing by the foot of Lookout Mountain.
        A roll-call held on arrival in camp showed all present except those reported in the list of casualties, a result which I regard as highly commendable, when it is considered that many men were entirely shoeless. Marching as we did without shelter of any kind, except a few gum blankets, all knapsacks, blankets, and shelter tents having been left behind at Chattanooga, subsisting for a major part of the time upon the country, from which only flour, meal, and meat were derived, a large portion of the time without sugar or coffee, it is to be supposed that our movements were attended with some privation and suffering. Nevertheless, I cannot forbear remarking in behalf of the men under my command that every labor, every privation, every suffering was borne with a patience and cheerfulness worthy of patriots, who are above all mercenary considerations. I must claim for them an abstinence from straggling or marauding worthy of commendation under the circumstances. During the entire movement, from the 22d November to the 17th December, I noticed no officer who faltered in the performance of his duty.
        It affords me pleasure to mention favorably the names of the respective regimental commanders in the brigade. Col. James Wood, jr., One hundred and thirty-sixth New York, who, though unsupported by any other field officer, carried his regiment through the whole campaign in fine order. Col. C. B. Gambee, Fifty-fifth Ohio; Lieut. Col. Godfrey Rider, jr., Thirty-third Massachusetts, and Maj. S. H. Hurst, commanding Seventy-third Ohio. I desire also to make especial mention of Capt. Thomas W. Higgins, senior captain of the Seventy-third Ohio, who on this occasion, as on many previous, displayed great energy, perseverance, and gallantry. The captain has acted as major for some time past with marked success, and I think the rank of major, by brevet, would be judiciously bestowed upon him.
        The members of my staff on this occasion, as heretofore, won my favorable commendation by their diligent attention to their respective duties and by their efficient co-operation.
        By the illness of Capt. B. F. Stone, acting assistant adjutant-general, I was to some extent deprived of his valuable services while on the march: nevertheless, by fortitude and perseverance, he continued, under great suffering, with the brigade during the entire march, and attended to his duties in camp every night, though repeatedly urged to go to the rear. Capt. J. V. Patton, acting commissary of subsistence, by his foresight and activity, succeeded in supplying the brigade in a regular manner, thus leaving no apology for individual foraging. I think the interest of the service would be promoted by his appointment by the Government as commissary of subsistence of volunteers. Capt. John D. Madeira, in the double capacity of acting assistant inspector-general and aide-de-camp, as well as Lieut. George A. Morse, provost-marshal, displayed great energy, activity, and daring, whereby they contributed much to the discipline and efficiency of the brigade.
        On the march, finding it necessary to draw upon the country for forage, I detailed Lieut. E. M. Cheney, Thirty-third Massachusetts Volunteers, to act as brigade quartermaster, and through him regular vouchers were given for hay and grain taken, and the forage was by him formally issued to the regiments. Though the duty was new to him, by industry and attention he succeeded in furnishing supplies without resorting to foraging by irresponsible parties.
        The official reports of the several regimental commanders and the consolidated list of casualties(*) are herewith transmitted.
        Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                                            ORLAND SMITH,
                                                                                     Colonel Seventy-third Ohio Vols., Comdg. Second Brigade.

                                                                            Lieut. R. E. BEECHER,
                                                                                      Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

NOVEMBER 23-27, 1863.--The Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign.
No. 105.--Report of Maj. Samuel H. Hurst, Seventy-third Ohio Infantry.

                                                                        HDQRS. SEVENTY-THIRD OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY,
                                                                        Lookout Valley, Tenn., December 22, 1863.


        I have the honor to make the following report of the part taken by the Seventy-third Ohio Regiment in the late campaign beginning with the battle of Chattanooga and ending in the relief of Knoxville, and the return of the corps to the old camping ground:
        On the afternoon of November 23, when the army moved forward and engaged the enemy in front of Chattanooga, the Eleventh Corps holding the left of our line, this regiment was massed in column and  I was ordered to support the Fifty-fifth Ohio, which engaged the enemy at the point where our line of battle crossed the Memphis and Charleston Railroad. We were held thus in reserve until about 12 o'clock, November 24. The enemy's sharpshooters kept up a very annoying fire along the front of the Second Division, and could not be dislodged by our skirmishers. A small creek ran between the two skirmish lines, and the enemy appeared to hold a strong position on its opposite bank. I was ordered to cross this creek near its mouth and charge the enemy in the woods, driving them from the front of our division lines, or, at least, developing their position and strength. Throwing the regiment across the creek. I sent forward Companies A and B as skirmishers, and charged on the double-quick. We drove in their skirmishers on the left and gained the rear of their rifle-pits, cutting off about 30 men from their supports. These men at once gave themselves up as prisoners. We gained a position behind the embankment of the East Tennessee railroad, almost 300 yards from its crossing the Memphis road. Here we engaged the enemy's sharpshooters in a clump of houses, and being ordered not to go farther forward, we remained in this advanced position during the night.
        Early next morning, in conjunction with the skirmishers of the Second Brigade, we charged the enemy's skirmishers again, and drove them a fourth of a mile, the left of our division moving forward and holding the ground thus gained. In these charges the officers and men of the regiment behaved with veteran coolness and courage, sustaining their high character for gallantry in action.
        This regiment took no further part in the battle at Chattanooga, but with the brigade moved up the river to the Chickamauga, from which place on the following day we took up the line of march in pursuit of the retreating foe. From Graysville we advanced with the brigade to Parker's Gap, and thence to Red Clay, where we assisted in the destruction of the railroad. Subsequently the regiment filled its place in the brigade in the march through East Tennessee to the relief of Knoxville, advancing as far as Louisville.
        The men bore with a heroic spirit the rigors of this trying campaign. Many of them were without blankets and some without shoes, but cheered by the welcome of loyal citizens and prompted by their own high soldierly spirit, they did their duty well.
        The casualties during the campaign were 1 wounded, 1 died during the march, and 1 missing.
        I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

                                                                                    SAML. H. HURST,
                                                                                            Major, Comdg. Seventy-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry.

                                                                                    Capt. B. F. STONE,
                                                                                            Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.

MAY 1-SEPTEMBER 8, 1864.--The Atlanta (Georgia) Campaign.
No. 275.--Report of Lieut. Col. Samuel H. Hurst, Seventy-third Ohio Infantry.

                                                                        HDQRS. 73D REGIMENT OHIO VETERAN VOL. INFANTRY,
                                                                        Atlanta, Ga., September 23, 1864.


        I have the honor, in obedience to orders, to report the operations of this command from the 2d day of May, 1864, to the 20th of September, 1864:
        On the 2d of May the regiment, with 318 guns left its camp in Lookout Valley and, joining the march of the brigade, moved to Gordon's Mills, on a branch of the Chickamauga, where we halted for a day; again moving forward, we halted near Ringgold and sent to the rear our surplus baggage; then we moved to Leet's farm, and from there across Taylor's Ridge, via Gordon's Springs, and, with the Army of the Cumberland, confronted the enemy at Buzzard Roost. Here We skirmished for two days, losing 1 man. Withdrawing, we moved with the brigade, via Snake Creek Gap, upon Resaca; assisted in driving the enemy into his works at this place, and having developed his position and engaged him with slight loss, on the 15th of May we moved with brigade to the extreme left of our army and joined in the attack and assault of that day, which engagement resulted to us in killed and wounded in the loss of 56 men. A full report of the part taken in that engagement by this command has been duly forwarded.(*) On the following day the regiment joined in the pursuit of the enemy, crossing Connesauga and Coosawattee Rivers, and moving in a southerly direction. On the 18th we again encountered the enemy on a wooded hill, across which our route lay. On the following day we engaged the enemy's skirmishers, who fell back toward Cassville. This regiment skirmished in the direction of Kingston, and discovered the enemy in strong force in our immediate front. We then fell back with the brigade and threw up temporary defenses. Subsequently we made a movement to the left and advanced to the seminary at Cass-ville; drove the enemy's skirmishers into the village, and opened fire on a column of troops passing through the place. Later we supported a section of artillery on Seminary Hill, and kept up a brisk skirmish until relieved by Colonel Coburn, commanding Second Brigade. We rested in this vicinity until the 23d of May, when we again joined the column on the march; moved down and across the Etowah River, leaving Allatoona Mountains on our left, and crossing Burnt Hickory Ridge, met the enemy near Dallas and participated in the battle fought by the Twentieth Corps on the 25th of May. In this engagement this command lost 72 officers and men in killed and wounded. After this the regiment joined in the successive movements to the left, and on the 15th of June in support of the First Brigade in a charge on the enemy's position near Pine Mountain. On the 19th and 22d, successively, we were joined with the brigade in charging the enemy and driving him within his main works near Kenesaw, in which charges and skirmishes the regiment lost 36 men killed and wounded. On the evening of the 22d of June we were moved to the right of the corps, on the Powder Springs road, where we remained several days, and until the enemy fell back from Marietta, when we were advanced to the vicinity of the Chattahoochee River. Here we had ten days of much needed rest. On the 17th of July we were thrown across the Chattahoochee and moved toward Buck Head. On the 20th of July we moved early and crossed Peach Tree Creek in the rear of General Newton s position, occupying a place in the second line. My regiment supported and relieved the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin during the engagement of this day, with a loss to the command of 18 officers and men. On the 22d we were again advanced as the enemy fell back to the defenses of Atlanta. My command occupied temporarily a number of positions during the investment of this place, with a loss of 15 men killed and  wounded. Falling back with the brigade to Turner's Ferry, when the main army moved upon Jonesborough, we came forward again and on the 4th of September took a position within the defenses of Atlanta, where we have been encamped to the present time. The campaign has been a severe one, the loss to this command in killed and wounded alone being 210 men and 8 officers, but the courage, the gallantry, the endurance, and determination of officers and men alike have proven their high soldierly capabilities, while the confident spirit of our troops gives full assurance that to our noble army Atlanta is but the "Gate City."
        Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                                            SAML. H. HURST,
                                                                                       Lieutenant-Colonel, Comdg. 73d Ohio Volunteer Infantry.

                                                                            Capt. C. H. YOUNG,
                                                                                        Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., 3d Brig., 3d Div., 20th Corps.

SEPTEMBER 29-NOVEMBER 13, 1864.--Operations in North Georgia and North Alabama.
No. 54.--Report of Lieut. Col. Edwin H. Powers, Fifty-fifth Ohio Infantry.

                                                                                HDQRS. FIFTY-FIFTH REGIMENT OHIO VOL. INFTY.,
                                                                                Savannah, Ga., December 24, 1864.


        I have the honor to report that this regiment entered the city of Atlanta, Ga., on the 2d day of September, 1864, and having been stationed behind the defenses of that city on the southeast, remained there until the 15th day of November following. While stationed at Atlanta the regiment (at least such portion of it as was then bearing arms) went with the brigade to which it belongs on a foraging expedition to the east of Decatur, and returned on the fourth day thereafter. During its absence from the city on the aforesaid expedition the regiment subsisted upon the country, obtaining about 1,400 pounds of meat of various kinds and about 20 bushels of sweet potatoes, together with vegetables of other kinds, in amount which I am unable to estimate. Of forage obtained by this regiment alone it is impossible to say what was the amount. On the second day of the expedition this regiment, together with the Seventy-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry (in charge of which I was placed), went to the vicinity of Lithonia, where they filled about 60 wagons with corn, making about 900 bushels (averaging the loads at fifteen bushels each).(*)
        Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                                              E. H. POWERS,
                                                                                        Lieut. Col. Fifty-fifth Ohio Vol. Infantry, Commanding.

                                                                              Capt. C. H. YOUNG,
                                                                                        Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Third Brigade.


                                                                                        NASHVILLE, September 25, 1864.
                                                                                        Major HOFFMAN,
                                                                                        Assistant Adjutant-General:

        Troops at this post not attached to garrison: Cavalry, under Colonel Lowe, 2,200; Artillery Reserve, Colonel Barnett, 7 batteries, 550 men; Captain Cogswell, 2 batteries, 235 men; Veteran Reserve, about 500; Thirteenth U.S. Infantry, 300; Tenth Tennessee Infantry, 100; Fourth Kentucky Infantry, 130; First Wisconsin Infantry, 100; One hundred and seventy-third Ohio Infantry, 1,000 men, just arrived; One hundred and first Colored Infantry, organizing, about 300.

                                                                                        JNO. F. MILLER,
                                                                                                Brigadier-General, Commanding.

NOVEMBER 15-DECEMBER 21, 1864.--The Savannah (Georgia) Campaign.
No. 136.--Report of Lieut. Col. Samuel H. Hurst, Seventy-third Ohio Infantry, of operations September 2--December 21.

                                                                        HDQRS. SEVENTY-THIRD REGT. OHIO VET. VOL. INFTY.,
                                                                        Savannah, Ga., December 24, 1864.


        In obedience to orders I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of my command from the time of the occupation of Atlanta to the present date:
        This command marched into and occupied a position in the defenses of Atlanta on the 2d day of September, 1864. From that time to the 21st of October the regiment performed picket-duty and worked upon the new line of fortifications projected for the defense of the city. On the 21st of October the regiment joined in an expedition commanded by Col. Daniel Dustin. The expedition went about twenty miles due east, collected over 800 wagon loads of forage, and returned to camp at Atlanta in four days without loss to this command. On the 15th day of November, 1864, this regiment moved from its camp in the defenses of Atlanta and began the march across the State of Georgia, occupying its position in the brigade in the line of march until it reached the defenses of Savannah without a single casualty in the command. The regiment assisted in destroying the railroad at Social Circle and at Madison.
        My command subsisted for thirty days almost wholly upon the products of the country through which we passed.
        I have to submit the following estimate of animals captured by my command: 10 horses, 20 mules, 6 head beef-cattle.
        I have also to submit an estimate of commissaries and forage captured and used by the men and animals of my command: 200 hogs and pigs, 40 sheep, 2,000 chickens and turkeys, 100 bushels meal, 100 gallons molasses, 1,000 pounds honey, 300 bushels sweet potatoes, 2,000 pounds flour, 1,000 pounds sugar, 300 bushels corn, and 1 ton of rough forage.
        The expedition was in nowise severe on this command. The health of the men was excellent throughout the campaign.
        I have the honor, captain, to subscribe myself your obedient servant,

                                                                             SAML. H. HURST,
                                                                                    Lieut. Col., Comdg. Seventy-third Ohio Vet. Vol. Infantry.

                                                                             Capt. C. H. YOUNG,
                                                                                    Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., 3d Brig., 3d Div., 20th Army Corps.


                                                                                        NASHVILLE, December 26, 1864.
                                                                                        Brigadier-General WHIPPLE:

        I did not know the Third and Fourth Michigan had been assigned, or I should not have ordered General Milroy to use them. I have sent him instructions not to post them on the road. This will leave but two regiments to garrison the road from here to Stevenson, the Twenty-ninth Michigan and One hundred and fifteenth Ohio, 200 men of the latter being prisoners. In addition to Miller's brigade, the One hundred and seventy-third Ohio, Fourth Division, Twentieth Corps, is here doing post duty, but General Miller says he cannot spare it, and that he has your letter assuring him the garrison shall not be diminished. With that regiment and the Forty-third Wisconsin, now at Clarksville by order of the major-general commanding, I could garrison the Chattanooga road. I have heard from General Watkins, at Hadensville, and suppose General McCook will be able to attend to Lyon in Kentucky.

                                                                                        LOVELL H. ROUSSEAU,

JANUARY 1-APRIL 26, 1865.--The Campaign of the Carolinas.
No. 202.--Report of Lieut. Col. Samuel H. Hurst, Seventy-third Ohio Infantry, of operations January 16-March 24.

                                                                HDQRS. SEVENTY-THIRD OHIO VETERAN VOL. INFANTRY,
                                                                Near Goldsborough, N. C., March 28, 1865.


        In obedience to orders, I have the honor to submit a report of the part taken by this command in the operations of the late campaign, including the engagements of the 16th and 19th instant:
    On the 10th day of January, 1865, this regiment was encamped at Fort Hardee, Beaufort District, S.C. On the following day it was moved to Hardeeville, on the Charleston and Savannah Railroad. Here it remained in camp until the 29th day of January, when, with the brigade: it was moved to Robertsville.
    On the 1st day of February the regiment was engaged in work upon the road from Sister's Ferry to Robertsville, and on the 2d marched to Lawtonville. Pursuing the line of march northward, we crossed the Big and Little Salkehatchie Rivers and reached the Charleston and Augusta Railroad near Graham's Turnout on the 7th of February. On the 8th, 9th, and 10th we were engaged in destroying the railroad from Graham's Turnout west to White Pond. On the 11th we marched back to Williston and northward to the Edisto River. On the 13th we crossed the North Edisto, and on the 16th arrived in front of Columbia. Moving up the Saluda River we crossed that stream and the Broad River, and on the 20th [21st] marched through Winnsborough. Another day brought us to the Catawba River, after crossing which our advance was greatly impeded by heavy rains. March 3, we reached Chesterfield, and on the 7th passed through Cheraw and crossed the Great Pedee. We reached Fayetteville, N. C., March 11, and rested till the 13th, when we crossed the Cape Fear. On the 14th we joined the brigade on a reconnaissance to Black River and engaged the enemy in a sharp skirmish. On the 15th the line of march northward was resumed, and the following day we met the enemy near Averasborough. In the engagement of the 16th this regiment held the right center of the brigade line and skirmished heavily. Two to four companies were constantly on the skirmish line. Ten prisoners were brought in. The casualties in the regiment were 9 enlisted men wounded. On the 19th, when this command reached the battlefield, it was massed in reserve for an hour, and then with the brigade was moved to the right and forward against the enemy in an extensive pine wood. This regiment was the right center of the first line of the brigade, and for one to two hours received and delivered a most murderous fire. The command was saved from annihilation by the men lying down. The darkness of night put an end to the conflict, when we retired 200 paces, built temporary works and rested for the night. Meanwhile the enemy withdrew, leaving his dead upon the field. The loss of my command in this engagement was 5 enlisted men killed, 4 officers and 20 enlisted men wounded. On the following day we were moved to the extreme left of our army lines, but were not again engaged. On the 22d we were drawn off and moved toward Goldsborough, which place we reached on the 24th.
        In the engagements of the 16th and 19th instant, as in all the duties of the campaign, the officers and men of this command evinced the highest qualities of soldiers--promptness, courage, and endurance.
        My command subsisted almost wholly upon the country. An approximate estimate of forage, commissaries, and animals obtained in the country is herewith forwarded.
        I have the honor to be, captain, your obedient servant,

                                                                            SAML. H. HURST,
                                                                                    Lieut. Col., Comdg. Seventy-third Ohio Veteran Vol. Infty.

                                                                            Capt. H. G. H. TARR,
                                                                                    Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., 3d Brig., 3d Div., 20th Army Corps.


        Estimate of commissaries, forage, and animals obtained by the Seventy-third Regiment during the campaign of Sherman's army in the Carolinas, from the 16th of January to the 25th of March, 1865, in obedience to an order to live upon the country.


Meal bushels 200
Flour pounds 4,000
Bacon do 10,000
Sugar do 1,000
Salt do 1,000
Sweet potatoes bushels 100
Chickens and turkeys .... 1,000


Corn bushels 200
Corn blades tons 5
Hay ton 1


Mules .... 20
Horses .... 10

        Respectfully submitted.

                                                                        SAML. H. HURST,
                                                                                Lieut. Col., Comdg. Seventy-third Ohio Veteran Vol. Infty.

P.S. I also estimate 100 bales cotton burned by men of my command. Casualties.(*)

                                                                        SAML. H. HURST,
                                                                                Lieut Col., Comdg. Seventy-third Ohio Veteran Vol. Infty.



                                                                                        Nashville, Tenn., February 10, 1865.

* * * * * * * * * *

III. The One hundred and seventy-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry is relieved from duty at the post of Nashville, and will proceed by rail to Columbia and relieve the Forty-eighth Missouri Volunteer Infantry, which, when relieved, will obey such orders as may have been given it by the major-general commanding the department. On the arrival of the One hundred and seventy-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry at Columbia, the commanding officer will report by telegraph to Brig. Gen. R. W. Johnson, at Pulaski.

* * * * * * * * * *

By command of Major-General Rousseau:

                                                                                        B. H. POLK,
                                                                                                Major and Assistant Adjutant-General.


                                                                                        NASHVILLE, TENN., February 13, 1865.
                                                                                        Brig. Gen. R. W. JOHNSON,


The One hundred and seventy-third Ohio will leave here for Columbia by rail this afternoon.

                                                                                        B. H. POLK,
                                                                                        Major and Assistant Adjutant-General.

O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME LI/1 [S# 107]
Union Correspondence, Orders, And Returns Relating To Operations In Maryland, Eastern North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia (Except Southwestern), And West Virginia, From January 1, 1861, To June 30, 1865.--#30

                                                                                        HEADQUARTERS ELEVENTH CORPS,
                                                                                        June 9, 1863.

                                                                                        E. M. STANTON,
                                                                                        Secretary of War:


        I have four brigades in this corps commanded by colonels. The impression prevails that all promotions come from outside the corps. Now, in order to strengthen the command and insure its efficiency, I recommend for promotion to the rank of brigadier-general: Col. Adolphus Buschbeck, Twenty-seventh Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, and Col. Orland Smith, Seventy-third Ohio Volunteers. I can vouch for these officers' loyalty, energy, and peculiar fitness as military men. If these worthy officers can be promoted I believe it will serve to allay much of the irritation that seems to exist in this corps.
        I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

                                                                                        O. O. HOWARD,
                                                                                                Major-General, Commanding.


Chapter X.—73rd Ohio Infantry.

Smith's Brigade--Von Steinwehr's Division--11th Corps.


O Officers K Killed and died of wounds.
M Men D Died of disease, accidents, in prison, &c.
T Total E Total Enrollment

                                --------K--------         --------D-------

Companies                 O     M     T         O     M     T         E

Field and Staff            1                1     15

Company A                 1    18     19              8        8       124
B                                     15     15              14       14      142
C                                     23     23              16       16     126
D                                     12     12             14        14     115
E                                   1   13     14             20        20     109
F                                   1   12     13             18        18     137
G                                     20     20             15        15     121
H                                     14     14             12        12     144
I                                    1   22     23             12        12     107
K                                     18    18              18        18     127
Unassigned                                            2          2      

Totals                            4 167   171           1 149      150  1,267

171 killed= 13.4 per cent.

Total of killed and wounded 681.




Forage Party, W. Va 1 Pine Mountain, Ga 2
Cross Keys, Va 5 Kenesaw Mountain, Ga 4
Manassas, Va 40 Culp's Farm, Ga 5
Gettysburg, Pa 39 Peach Tree Creek, Ga 3
Wauhatchie, Tenn 16 Siege of Atlanta, Ga 4
Resaca, Ga 19 Averasboro, N. C 1
New Hope Church, Ga 21 Bentonville, N. C 11

Present, also, at Moorefield; McDowell; Cedar Mountain; Chancellorsville; Lookout Mountain; Missionary Ridge; Rocky Face Ridge; Cassville; Savannah.

NOTES.— The Seventy-third was recruited largely in Ross county, and was organized at Chillicothe, December 31, 1861. It left Ohio on the 24th of January, 1862, for West Virginia, where it served under Lander, Milroy, and Fremont, and was engaged in several expeditions and minor engagements. It fought at Manassas then in McLean's (2d) Brigade, Schenck's (1st) Division, Sigel's Corps— losing 25 killed, 87 wounded, and 36 missing, with only 312 muskets taken into action. Soon after this battle the regiment was placed in Barlow's (1st) Brigade, Steinwehr's (2d) Division, Eleventh Corps, with which command it remained encamped in Virginia during the ensuing Maryland and Fredericksburg campaigns, and during the winter of 1862-'63. Barlow's Brigade was only slightly engaged at Chancellorsville, but at Gettysburg the brigade (Smith's) did some hard fighting, the regiment losing 21 killed, 120 wounded, and 4 missing, out of about 300 present in action. In September the Seventy-third accompanied its corps to Tennessee, where it was engaged, a few weeks after, in the midnight battle of Wauhatchie. In that affair the Seventy-third Ohio and Thirty-third Massachusetts carried a strong position by storm — a gallant action, which General Grant alluded to in his official report as "one of the most daring feats of arms of the war." While on the Atlanta Campaign the Seventy-third was in Woods's (3d) Brigade, Ward's (3d) Division, Twentieth Corps. At Resaca it lost 10 killed, and 42 wounded; at New Hope Church, 15 killed, and 59 wounded; and at Bentonville (Cogswell's Brigade), 5 killed, and 25 wounded.